Agentes comunitarios de salud para el autocontrol en diabetes / Community health agents for self-control in diabetes

Antonio Vicente Yam Sosa, Silvia del Carmen Delgado Sandoval, Hugo Antonio Laviada Molina, María Laura Ruiz Paloalto

Resumen


Los agentes comunitarios de salud son personas capacitadas para asistir al profesional de salud durante la prestación de servicio en la comunidad. También reciben el nombre de par de apoyo: viven con la misma enfermedad que la persona a la cual apoyan y saben lo que significa vivir y lidiar con la enfermedad. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar evidencia científica sobre el alcance y beneficio de la contribución de los pares en diversos programas de educación para el automanejo de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DT2). Para esto, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de ensayos clínicos controlados publicados en los años de 2010 a 2015. Las fuentes fueron recopiladas de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales, tales como MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science (Science, Index). Los descriptores fueron tres conceptos “diabetes” AND “apoyo de los pares” AND “resultados”. Se incluyeron artículos de texto completo en inglés y español.

Los resultados de la búsqueda proporcionaron una fuerte evidencia de apoyo entre iguales en el automanejo de la diabetes. La intervención de los pares de apoyo demostró ser una excelente colaboradora con los profesionales de salud en el automanejo de la DT2. Tiene viabilidad en su implementación, sustentabilidad al retener la alta proporción de población participante, efectividad clínica y mejora en la calidad de vida al evidenciar una reducción signifcativa de hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1C), eficacia —especialmente en personas con baja adherencia al medicamento y autogestión, y con bajo nivel de alfabetización en salud—, reducción de costos por hospitalizaciones, y,además, ha demostrado ser una práctica humanizadora. La implementación de programas para el automanejo de la diabetes con el apoyo de pares está altamente difundida en varias partes del mundo. Los hallazgos del estudio demostraron que los pares de apoyo son una excelente estrategia para el autocontrol y para hacer frente a los retos de salud presentes y futuros en el cuidado de la persona que vive con DT2.

Palabras clave


Agentes Comunitarios de Salud, Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2, Educación en Salud, Atención Primaria en Salud (fuente: DeCS)

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23913/rics.v6i12.57

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